Featured post

Spectacular Moree Sunset Supercell 19th December 2020

Published by:

Absolutely stunning supercell developed just prior to sunset as I was on the way back to my hotel! It rotated and split into a right mover and left moving supercell with this being the right mover and illuminated by the setting sun.

It produced hailstones to at lest 2 to 3 cm in diameter as the storm passed over head on dusk! It also produced beautiful lightning!

Featured post

12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

Published by:

Nature is definitely something majestic and completely unpredictable. Tornadoes are probably some of the most fascinating nature`s creations. They appear from nowhere, bring huge destruction and vanish. Even though we have the most advanced technologies, we still cannot handle tornadoes. The only thing we can do is to stay away from the place where a tornado is expected.

That’s why if you are writing a research paper about tornadoes, it will definitely get attention. However, the topic is not so easy. That’s why we have prepared some tips on custom research paper writing provided by expert writers from EssayLib.

Tips from Specialists on Tornado Research Paper Writing

To make your paper succeed, pay attention to these tips from specialists. We would divide them into two main categories: specific tips and general tips.

Some specific tips are the ones that advice what information you can include in the paper:

  • For example, you might want to describe how tornadoes appear, where and when they occur.
  • You might mention how strong they can be and how long they might last.
  • If you mention about myths and legends about tornadoes, it might make your paper more attractive for the reader.
  • Tornadoes are connected with a lot of destruction and damage. That’s why it is usually requested to describe the measures that one can take to minimize the effects of a tornado or even to save somebody’s life and health.

You shall not forget that a tornado research paper is the usual research paper. That’s why you should follow all the rules that apply to the writing process of a normal research paper.

  • Select the topic you would like to work on. Make sure it covers a specific field to research. If it is too wide, you will have problems with fitting it into one paper. It might also influence your paper quality negatively.
  • Write a thesis statement. Show the main idea of the paper in 1-2 sentences. Be exact, it shall contain the essence of your paper.
  • Read the sources that your teacher has provided. Even if there is nothing interesting in most of them, your teacher will definitely want to check if you have used them. After that, you might research the sources that interest you. There are a lot of materials about tornadoes in libraries, electronic libraries and just online. Use all the resources that are available to collect information.
  • Write a research outline. Based on the notes that you have made during the research, write an outline for your paper. Think about what you are going to include there. Shall it be a paper about where tornadoes are most frequent? Or something from the history of the most devastating tornadoes? Or maybe you have dared to research the topic more properly and would like to write about why and how the tornadoes evolve and why they are more frequent in some places? Whatever you select, you will find a lot of information for the most engaging paper. And for now, make the outline for your future creation.
  • Write a draft. Just write down your ideas based on each portion of the information you have collected during the research.   
  • Check which quotations you can use in your paper. Make sure they are organically integrated into the paper content. At this stage, you can already make the list of references. If you do it without delays, it will save you some time in the future.
  • Revise the content that you already have. Improve the structure, rearrange the parts to make the paper smooth and logical.
  • Proofread the paper, edit errors and typos, improve the parts that aren’t perfect.

A Research Paper Types You Can Be Assigned to

Usually, students do one of the following research paper types:

  • An argumentative paper
  • Analytical research.

In the first case, you need to discuss your idea based on some facts and evidence. Here, you should choose a controversial topic that allows discussion.

In the second case, you have some sources and based on them, you need to perform a detailed analysis of the question.

That’s why before you start your research on tornado, make sure you understand what exactly research paper type you are going to work on. Some students get confused with the task and cannot do the job properly. So, make sure you understand what kind of paper you are writing. If you have any doubts, ask your teacher.

As you can see, there is nothing complicated in writing a paper about tornadoes if you know how to write a research paper. You need to know how to write a research paper and to have some specific knowledge about tornadoes. All the information is available both online and offline, so, make proper research and write a paper that will amaze your teacher.

Typhoon In-Fa – NW Pacific Ocean – Taiwan and China.

Published by:

A sluggish and slow moving typhoon is currently slowly moving towards the city of Shanghai however landfall is expected to the south of the city. The storm has struggled to maintain any significant strength throughout its life span but it has changed course over recent days. While it has reached a Category 2 system on the Saffir Simpson scale, it has weakened somewhat to a Category 1 System with peak wind gusts ranging between 65 and 70 knots (Between 120 and 130 km/h) at the core.

It is not a strong storm in terms of wind intensities but given its speed, it does have potential to unleash significant rainfall and flooding once it approaches land. This storm is expected to weaken further to a tropical depression at landfall below the threshold of a typhoon.

China has recently experienced two major flood events with one such event along the southern coast near Yangjiang (Southern Guandong Provence) caused by a weak typhoon named Cempaka and another such event in Zhengzhou in China’s central Henan province.

Both events have caused significant losses and flooding including fatalities. The latest storm has the potential to add to the flooding events that have already occurred.

Typhoon In - Fa presently has a well defined eye and is passing over waters of approximately 28 to 29C but will encounter a slightly more unfavourable environment just prior to landfall.

The main impact would be flooding at landfall. A population density plot for Eastern China has been generated using NASA Worldview. Given the forecast track shown on CIMSS, it does show that this storm has potential to unleash a significant flood event for eastern China close to Shanghai.

This is a highly populated region of China and as such, this storm has potential to be another significant event and the third such event for China in recent weeks.

Prolonged outbreak of rain, cold, storms, wind and snow Southern Australia 13 to 18 July 2021

Published by:

During a five day period between the 13 and the 18 July 2021, a significant low pressure system has been passing to the south of the Australian continent which has resulted in a number of cold fronts passing across South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.

Each frontal system has provided a continued outbreak of cold wintry weather across the south and rainfall figures are starting to accumulate. Low level snow is occurring across the southern ranges and into the Central Tablelands.

On Thursday evening, one particular front generated thunderstorm activity across the south west part of New South Wales and one strong cell passed over rural areas west of Wagga Wagga. Additionally, two separate storm cells passed along the New South Wales / Victorian state border. The cells brought a high frequency of lightning strikes and the Albury Airport recorded 8.8 mm of rain in 21 minutes and a total of 20 mm from the event.

Winter thunderstorms are rare in this part of the state but having storms occur after sunset in mid July makes this event even more unusual.

Rainfall accumulations across the five days are beginning to mount although the heaviest falls are relatively localized to the areas immediately to the west of the Snowy Mountains and the mountainous areas of North East Victoria. Accumulations have now reached in excess of 100 mm within isolated areas.

Interestingly, stark rain shadows lie to the east. Air is rising across the ranges and the rainfall is being dropped within the highly exposed locations but areas to the east of the Great Dividing Range have remained relatively dry. Thus, the same locations have been receiving rainfall across the 5 days.

Some notable weather events identified are:-


Roseworthy - (South Australia). The weather station recorded peak wind gusts to 95 km/h between 3.34 pm and 3.42 pm on the 15/7/2021 as one particular front passed through.

Albion Park - (Wollongong New South Wales). The weather station recorded peak wind gusts of 95 km/h between 12.30 pm and 12.35 pm 16/7/2021 as a front passed through.

Moss Vale - (New South Wales Southern Highlands). A peak wind gust of 85 km/h occurred at 12.07 pm 16/7/2021 as a cold front passed through.

Sydney - (New South Wales). A peak wind gust of 80 km/h occurred at 12.41 pm 16/7/2021 as a front passed through.


Thursday evening 15/7/2021, thunderstorm activity passed over areas of the Riverina and South West slopes with Albury Airport recording 20 mm from one event which occurred after sunset.


To date, the heaviest falls occurred during the 24 hours to 9 am 17/7/2021.

Tooma Dam (NSW) - 82 mm.

Perisha Valley (NSW) - 61 mm.

Geehi (NSW) - 60 mm

(All areas are within the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales and much of this would have been snowfall at higher elevation.)

Black Range (Victoria) - 59 mm.

Harris Lane (Victoria) - 53 mm.

Upper Buckland (Victoria) - 50 mm

(All areas are within the rugged areas of North East Victoria).

Outside the regions, rainfall has been lower but accumulative totals are starting to mount such as 50 mm at Albury Airport.


The coldest day so far during the event has been the 17/7/2021 due to the wind direction and snow levels have dropped to quite low levels (Approximately 800 metres above sea level).

Some snowfall has occurred around the Oberon region and the weather station here was reading a temperature of 0.8C at 1.10 pm (17/7/2021).

There have also been snow showers around Canberra and even Blackheath.

While light snows have occurred over the Central Tablelands, heavy snowfalls have occurred across the Snowy Mountains and higher areas of North East Victoria.


Conditions are expected to ease as the final front clears the state and passes out into the Tasman Sea.

However, during Tuesday 20 July, a vigorous cold front is forecast to pass over Southern Australia that will re establish the cold conditions over the region. However, this system appears to be even colder as snowfalls are forecast to lower to 500 metres above sea level. Snow may even fall again over the Central Tablelands. This system is expected to be shorter lived than the current system impacting the south.

Significant heatwave – South West United States – July 2021

Published by:

An intense heatwave has gripped the South West United States for much of the start of July 2021 which has seen near record temperatures occur at certain locations and in one case, a possible new temperature record for the United States being the highest “minimum overnight temperature” recorded.

A weather station at Stovepipe Wells in Death Valley appears to have recorded a minimum overnight temperature of 42.1C which was recorded at 5.25 am on July 12 2021. The temperature recordings for this weather station appear to be:-

2 am - 46.1C or 115F.

4 am - 44.9C or 113F.

5.25 am - 42.1C or 108F.

6 am - 43.6C or 110.5F.

If confirmed, this would break the record currently held at nearby Furnace Creek being 41.7C or 107F recorded on July 12 2012.

I travelled to this location in June 2007 and as shown in the attached photo of nearby Badwater Basin just to the south of Furnace Creek, it is easy to see why such high daily temperature extremes occur here year after year.

Minimum overnight temperatures of 40C are rare anywhere in the world but Death Valley is one of a very few places globally where this can occur due to the topography of the region. The mountain ranges to the east and west play a significant role in trapping in the heat of the day allowing little to escape overnight.

In addition, this heatwave has seen a maximum temperature reach 54.4C or 130F at Furnace Creek on July 9 2021 at 5.00 pm. At Furnace Creek, it reached 53.5C on the 10/7/2021 and 53C on the 11/7/2021 which is significant even for this desert location. A temperature of 54.4C could be amongst the highest verified temperature ever recorded anywhere however this is now subject to intense review.

The official recording for this station is attached to the post for July 9 2021 with the 5 pm temperature of 130F (54.4C) highlighted in blue for clarity.

The heatwave has impacted much of the south west United States including inland California, Arizona, Nevada and even into a portion of Utah where the city of St George recorded 46C on the 10 July 2021. What makes this temperature more impressive is that the weather station lies approximately 860 metres above sea level (Almost the same elevation as Orange in New South Wales for comparison).

Lake Havasu City topped 48C or 118F on July 9. Even more remarkable was that at 1.15 am on July 10, it was still 40C (104F) with the overnight minimum dropping to around 36.5C or 97F at 5.15 am and back up to 100F or 37.8C at 7.15 am. This area is also susceptible to intense summer heatwaves due to location and proximity of nearby mountain ranges trapping in the summer heat.

The worst affected cities are Palm Springs, Yuma, Lake Havasu City and Las Vegas. The heat has contributed to fires in California, significant stress to dwindling water supplies and current drought conditions worsening.

Significant hot weather has also occurred across the inland areas of Oregon and Washington States east of the Cascades and across low lying areas of Idaho where several fires burn. There is significant fire activity south east of Crater Lake in Oregon and another significant blaze north of Fresno in California.

The attached satellite photo taken from NASA’s worldview dated Monday 12 July 2021 is showing one of the largest fires so far this season near Klamath Falls in southern Oregon with a thick smoke plume extending hundreds of kilometers towards the north east and impacting the air quality over Boise (Idaho).

The heatwave is starting to ease across the south west as monsoonal moisture increases bringing with it isolated thunderstorms and the potential for local flash flood episodes.

The current heatwave may have set a few temperature records although such records now need to be proven and reviewed prior to the recordings being confirmed within official data.