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Spectacular Moree Sunset Supercell 19th December 2020

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Absolutely stunning supercell developed just prior to sunset as I was on the way back to my hotel! It rotated and split into a right mover and left moving supercell with this being the right mover and illuminated by the setting sun.

It produced hailstones to at lest 2 to 3 cm in diameter as the storm passed over head on dusk! It also produced beautiful lightning!

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12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

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12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

Nature is definitely something majestic and completely unpredictable. Tornadoes are probably some of the most fascinating nature`s creations. They appear from nowhere, bring huge destruction and vanish. Even though we have the most advanced technologies, we still cannot handle tornadoes. The only thing we can do is to stay away from the place where a tornado is expected.

That’s why if you are writing a research paper about tornadoes, it will definitely get attention. However, the topic is not so easy. That’s why we have prepared some tips on custom research paper writing provided by expert writers from EssayLib.

Tips from Specialists on Tornado Research Paper Writing

To make your paper succeed, pay attention to these tips from specialists. We would divide them into two main categories: specific tips and general tips.

Some specific tips are the ones that advice what information you can include in the paper:

  • For example, you might want to describe how tornadoes appear, where and when they occur.
  • You might mention how strong they can be and how long they might last.
  • If you mention about myths and legends about tornadoes, it might make your paper more attractive for the reader.
  • Tornadoes are connected with a lot of destruction and damage. That’s why it is usually requested to describe the measures that one can take to minimize the effects of a tornado or even to save somebody’s life and health.

You shall not forget that a tornado research paper is the usual research paper. That’s why you should follow all the rules that apply to the writing process of a normal research paper.

  • Select the topic you would like to work on. Make sure it covers a specific field to research. If it is too wide, you will have problems with fitting it into one paper. It might also influence your paper quality negatively.
  • Write a thesis statement. Show the main idea of the paper in 1-2 sentences. Be exact, it shall contain the essence of your paper.
  • Read the sources that your teacher has provided. Even if there is nothing interesting in most of them, your teacher will definitely want to check if you have used them. After that, you might research the sources that interest you. There are a lot of materials about tornadoes in libraries, electronic libraries and just online. Use all the resources that are available to collect information.
  • Write a research outline. Based on the notes that you have made during the research, write an outline for your paper. Think about what you are going to include there. Shall it be a paper about where tornadoes are most frequent? Or something from the history of the most devastating tornadoes? Or maybe you have dared to research the topic more properly and would like to write about why and how the tornadoes evolve and why they are more frequent in some places? Whatever you select, you will find a lot of information for the most engaging paper. And for now, make the outline for your future creation.
  • Write a draft. Just write down your ideas based on each portion of the information you have collected during the research.   
  • Check which quotations you can use in your paper. Make sure they are organically integrated into the paper content. At this stage, you can already make the list of references. If you do it without delays, it will save you some time in the future.
  • Revise the content that you already have. Improve the structure, rearrange the parts to make the paper smooth and logical.
  • Proofread the paper, edit errors and typos, improve the parts that aren’t perfect.

A Research Paper Types You Can Be Assigned to

Usually, students do one of the following research paper types:

  • An argumentative paper
  • Analytical research.

In the first case, you need to discuss your idea based on some facts and evidence. Here, you should choose a controversial topic that allows discussion.

In the second case, you have some sources and based on them, you need to perform a detailed analysis of the question.

That’s why before you start your research on tornado, make sure you understand what exactly research paper type you are going to work on. Some students get confused with the task and cannot do the job properly. So, make sure you understand what kind of paper you are writing. If you have any doubts, ask your teacher.

As you can see, there is nothing complicated in writing a paper about tornadoes if you know how to write a research paper. You need to know how to write a research paper and to have some specific knowledge about tornadoes. All the information is available both online and offline, so, make proper research and write a paper that will amaze your teacher.

Potential tropical cyclone – NE Queensland – 28 February to 3 March 2021

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Potential tropical cyclone - NE Queensland - 28 February to 3 March 2021

A tropical depression off the north east Queensland coast north east of Mackay and east of Townsville has gained strength overnight and is now under watch for further development into a tropical cyclone.

CIMSS has this storm under investigation as a “Tropical Depression”. There is now distinct circulation close to the core and strong convection (Cumulonimbus clouds) is also visible on satellite photos. The storm presently does not have a distinct eye and its future development now depends on its proximity to the Queensland coast.

Potential tropical cyclone - NE Queensland - 28 February to 3 March 2021
Potential tropical cyclone - NE Queensland - 28 February to 3 March 2021

Offshore weather stations close to the core being:-

  1. Willis Island.
  2. Flinders Island.
  3. Homes Reef.

Are reporting maximum wind gusts of between 39 km/h and 76 km/h.  At the time of writing, the core of the storm is offshore and situated between all three weather stations mentioned above.

Potential tropical cyclone - NE Queensland - 28 February to 3 March 2021

The Flinders Island Weather Station to the south of the core has reported the strongest wind gusts to date being 76 km/h between 1.13 am and 1.30 am 28/2/2021.

Potential tropical cyclone - NE Queensland - 28 February to 3 March 2021

A weather station at Hamilton Island further away to the south west has recorded two peak wind gusts of 82 km/h at 7 am and 7.02 am 28/2/2021.

This storm appears to be moving south east and if it continues that direction, then the storm would remain offshore but at the present time a detailed forecast track has not been developed and at Sunday morning, a tropical cyclone watch had not even been issued.

The system including the monsoonal low within the area has brought some high rainfall totals including:-

Lower Gregory Alert 118 mm.

Preston Alert 112 mm

Up River Road 104 mm.

For the 24 hours to 9 am 28/2/2021 but such rainfall is localized to small areas of the Queensland Coast.

The images attached to this article are taken from CIMSS and Himawari-8 which clearly shows how close the storm is to the Queensland Coast.

Its development will continue to be watched due to its proximity to the coastline.

Addendum 28/2/2021 - Further developments

Since the publication of the above storey, the Bureau of Meteorology has issued a Tropical Cyclone advice for an area between Cape Flattery to Lucinda including Cairns for a possible tropical cyclone to develop in coming days. The storm at the time of issue of the advice at 11.33 am Sunday morning was located approximately 270 km east of Cairns and moving south west at 15 km per hour. However landfall was not expected.

Sea surface temperatures are around 29C off Cairns which would support a tropical cyclone in the range of Category 2 (possibly Category 3).

Another weather station close to the core of the storm being Holmes Reef has reported a peak wind gust of 76 km/h Sunday afternoon which gives an indication of its current strength.

The storm is forecast to develop further into a tropical cyclone during Tuesday 2 March 2021.

The main issue at the current time is heavy rain and flooding of coastal rivers and the highest rainfall to 4 pm Sunday afternoon is 52 mm at Alva Beach. Flood watches have been issued for the coastal areas and rivers due to forecast rainfall for the region.

Rain events and flooding – Eastern New South Wales and Queensland – 21 – 28 February 2021

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Rain events and flooding - Eastern New South Wales and Queensland - 21 - 28 February 2021

The region stretching from Sydney northwards into Queensland has again seen another wet week. Thunderstorms, rain events and even flooding has been a feature especially for the New South Wales north coast and areas north of Coffs Harbour.

For the 24 hours to 9 am 25 February 2021, a significant rainfall event impacted a small area north of Coffs Harbour but south of Grafton. A number of weather stations within the region recorded between 100 mm and 200 mm of rain which resulted in flooding along the Orara River. The highest rainfall totals for the event included:-

Wooli Sportsground - 166 mm.

Corindi River (Pacific HWY) - 153 mm.

Woolgoolga WTP - 148 mm.

Glenreagh - 125 mm.

Minnie Water Pump Shed - 109 mm.

There was also an isolated fall of 165 mm at Baryulgil.

Rain events and flooding - Eastern New South Wales and Queensland - 21 - 28 February 2021

The flooding damaged homes and the major north to south rail link which included the derailment of part of a freight train traversing through the impacted area.

The Orara River at Glenreagh experienced moderate to major flooding During Thursday with a flood peak in excess of 11 metres.

Rain events and flooding - Eastern New South Wales and Queensland - 21 - 28 February 2021

Late morning on Thursday 25/2/2021, a thunderstorm brought moderate rain to parts of Sydney with the heaviest rainfalls occurring around Parramatta and Auburn areas.

Thunderstorms also impacted the Tamworth region on the 24/2/2021 with one particular storm producing wind gusts of 80 km/h at the airport between 4.34 pm and 4.42 pm (24/2/2021).

The satellite images have consistently shown large cloud masses which has resulted in regular back up rain. During Saturday, another cloud mass is impacting eastern New South Wales which has brought 33 mm of rain to Armidale (Northern Tablelands) between 9 am and 1 pm plus 14.6 mm for the 24 hours to 9 am 27/2/2021 at the same location.

The same cloud mass brought 81 mm of rain to Caroda (North of Mt Kaputar - New South Wales) for the 24 hours to 9 am 27/2/2021.

As shown on the weekly rainfall total plot for the week ending the 26 February 2021, parts of the New South Wales North Coast has received between 200 and 300 mm of rain over the past 7 days.

Rain events and flooding - Eastern New South Wales and Queensland - 21 - 28 February 2021

The La Nina event has brought constant cloud cover and regular rain events especially across Eastern New South Wales during January and February. In addition, there has been a lack of hot days and it has only reached 30C on no more than 3 days here at Blacktown during February 2021.

Rain events and flooding - Eastern New South Wales and Queensland - 21 - 28 February 2021

At Blacktown in Western Sydney, rainfall has been recorded on at least 15 days of the past 27 days. Cumulative totals have varied between 97 mm and 147 mm spread evenly across the month. Other than a significant fall of between 34 and 50 mm on the 2/2/2021, this rain has generally been light to moderate in intensity.

Further rainfall is expected over coming days especially across north east New South Wales and it is known that a significant event is now possible along the north Queensland coast in coming days. The CIMSS has a potential storm under investigation for possible development into a tropical cyclone and future rainfall models are suggesting falls of between 200 mm and 400 mm within a coastal area stretching north from Mackay to Cairns. As such, the current wet episode impacting Eastern New South Wales and Queensland will continue and it is likely that more significant events are possible in coming days and weeks.

Heavy coastal showers – New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021

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Heavy coastal showers - New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021

During the period 15 to the 21 February 2021, coastal showers have impacted the coastal strip of New South Wales from Sydney to the Queensland border and inland to the Great Dividing Range. Very little of the rainfall has penetrated inland west of the Great Dividing Range.

Heavy coastal showers - New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021

Some rainfalls have been significant in localized areas and over the past 7 days, accumulative rainfalls have been significant for some locales. For the 24 hours to 9 am 20/2/2021, some heavy rainfall totals include:-

Richmond / Tweed River valley / Far North Coast (NE New South Wales)

The Channon 201 mm.

Dunoon 163 mm.

Byron Bay 131 mm.

Mullumbimby 121 mm.

Yelgun Creek.

Localised falls exceeding 100 mm were common in this area but limited to this region.

Bellinger Valley

Bowraville 116 mm.

Mid North coast

Redoak 129 mm.

Laurieton (Mill Street 118 mm).

As a result of the constant rainfall, some flooding has occurred in river catchments including the Bellinger River at Thora and the Wilson River at Lismore, both of which were in minor flood during Saturday.

Heavy coastal showers - New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021

During Saturday 20/2/21, constant showers soaked the Port Macquarie region on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales which included rainfall totals of 65 mm at Port Macquarie Dam and 72 mm at Redoak (Figures for the 24 hours to 9 am 21/2/21).

Heavy coastal showers - New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021
Heavy coastal showers - New South Wales North Coast, 15-21 February 2021

For the week ending 20 February 2021, accumulative rainfall totals have reached in excess of 200 mm for the coastal areas of the Tweed River Valleys and the Bellinger Valley / Coffs Harbour Region with significant areas of the North Coast of New South Wales also receiving at least 100 mm to 150 mm.

Across Sydney, falls have been lighter with accumulative totals in the range of 25 mm to 50 mm common however some of the showers have also been heavy although brief in nature. Onshore winds have brought much cloud and high humidity with regular showers, especially overnight and early morning but no significant hot weather.

The rainfall plots have been generated from the Water and the Land site (Bureau of Meteorology)  dated 20 and 21 February 2021.