Featured post

Spectacular Moree Sunset Supercell 19th December 2020

Published by:

Absolutely stunning supercell developed just prior to sunset as I was on the way back to my hotel! It rotated and split into a right mover and left moving supercell with this being the right mover and illuminated by the setting sun.

It produced hailstones to at lest 2 to 3 cm in diameter as the storm passed over head on dusk! It also produced beautiful lightning!

Featured post

12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

Published by:

Nature is definitely something majestic and completely unpredictable. Tornadoes are probably some of the most fascinating nature`s creations. They appear from nowhere, bring huge destruction and vanish. Even though we have the most advanced technologies, we still cannot handle tornadoes. The only thing we can do is to stay away from the place where a tornado is expected.

That’s why if you are writing a research paper about tornadoes, it will definitely get attention. However, the topic is not so easy. That’s why we have prepared some tips on custom research paper writing provided by expert writers from EssayLib.

Tips from Specialists on Tornado Research Paper Writing

To make your paper succeed, pay attention to these tips from specialists. We would divide them into two main categories: specific tips and general tips.

Some specific tips are the ones that advice what information you can include in the paper:

  • For example, you might want to describe how tornadoes appear, where and when they occur.
  • You might mention how strong they can be and how long they might last.
  • If you mention about myths and legends about tornadoes, it might make your paper more attractive for the reader.
  • Tornadoes are connected with a lot of destruction and damage. That’s why it is usually requested to describe the measures that one can take to minimize the effects of a tornado or even to save somebody’s life and health.

You shall not forget that a tornado research paper is the usual research paper. That’s why you should follow all the rules that apply to the writing process of a normal research paper.

  • Select the topic you would like to work on. Make sure it covers a specific field to research. If it is too wide, you will have problems with fitting it into one paper. It might also influence your paper quality negatively.
  • Write a thesis statement. Show the main idea of the paper in 1-2 sentences. Be exact, it shall contain the essence of your paper.
  • Read the sources that your teacher has provided. Even if there is nothing interesting in most of them, your teacher will definitely want to check if you have used them. After that, you might research the sources that interest you. There are a lot of materials about tornadoes in libraries, electronic libraries and just online. Use all the resources that are available to collect information.
  • Write a research outline. Based on the notes that you have made during the research, write an outline for your paper. Think about what you are going to include there. Shall it be a paper about where tornadoes are most frequent? Or something from the history of the most devastating tornadoes? Or maybe you have dared to research the topic more properly and would like to write about why and how the tornadoes evolve and why they are more frequent in some places? Whatever you select, you will find a lot of information for the most engaging paper. And for now, make the outline for your future creation.
  • Write a draft. Just write down your ideas based on each portion of the information you have collected during the research.   
  • Check which quotations you can use in your paper. Make sure they are organically integrated into the paper content. At this stage, you can already make the list of references. If you do it without delays, it will save you some time in the future.
  • Revise the content that you already have. Improve the structure, rearrange the parts to make the paper smooth and logical.
  • Proofread the paper, edit errors and typos, improve the parts that aren’t perfect.

A Research Paper Types You Can Be Assigned to

Usually, students do one of the following research paper types:

  • An argumentative paper
  • Analytical research.

In the first case, you need to discuss your idea based on some facts and evidence. Here, you should choose a controversial topic that allows discussion.

In the second case, you have some sources and based on them, you need to perform a detailed analysis of the question.

That’s why before you start your research on tornado, make sure you understand what exactly research paper type you are going to work on. Some students get confused with the task and cannot do the job properly. So, make sure you understand what kind of paper you are writing. If you have any doubts, ask your teacher.

As you can see, there is nothing complicated in writing a paper about tornadoes if you know how to write a research paper. You need to know how to write a research paper and to have some specific knowledge about tornadoes. All the information is available both online and offline, so, make proper research and write a paper that will amaze your teacher.

Supercell and Storms SW Sydney October 23rd 2021

Published by:

Supercell and Storms SW Sydney October 23rd 2021

Some potentially dangerous storms developed across NSW with an upper level retreating trough and remnant cold air allowing for the development of storms including a few supercells. One of the supercells developed SW of Appin and Picton region. Some very severe microbursts were experienced with whiteout conditions and hail. The storm weakened as it hit the region near Appin.

Severe storms and hail events – October 2021 – Eastern NSW and QLD

Published by:

A feature of October 2021 has been the number of significant thunderstorm events across eastern New South Wales and Queensland which has been unusual. Several of the storms have reached supercell status and most have been well documented by residents partly because they have struck population centres.(If you have experienced hail damage, please contact 0408020468 or go to haidents.com.au)

As such the record of these have not gone unnoticed by residents.

Several of the storms and hail events have caused extensive damage to property such as the Coffs Harbour (Tormina storm) of Wednesday 20 October 2021.

The number of events are growing and now includes:-

1 - Meadow Flat (Between Bathurst and Lithgow), Goulburn, Western Sydney and the Armidale events of Thursday 14 October 2021 (Four separate storm events) previously covered in earlier posts.

I have since learnt that the Goulburn storm of the 14/10/21 produced hail of up to 4 cm in size across the southern part of the town.

2 - Toormina storm (Part of Coffs Harbour City) - The storm of Wednesday 20 October impacted Toormina particularly hard with excessive hail believed to be in the order of 2 to 4 cm in size (Up to golf ball size) which has resulted in hail drifts. Extensive damage is evident at the local shopping centre.

The weather station at the nearby airport recorded a remarkable fall of 69.6 mm of rainfall from the event but what is remarkable is that 24 mm of that fell between 2.18 pm and 2.30 pm which is 2 mm per minute. The airport also recorded peak wind gusts of 87 km/h. Damage is extensive and local media is suggesting damage in the order of tens of millions even as high as one hundred million.

The main feature of this storm was the prolific hail and the resultant hail drifts thereafter.

3 - The previous day on the 19/10/21 in Queensland, the township of Yalboroo north west of Mackay had credible reports of hail up to 16 cm in size which indications are, a new Australian record for size. Images have been seen in social media and other forms of media showing battered cars, buildings and significant hail damage to structures.

The Bureau of Meteorology is also suggesting credible reports of hail of this size.

Location attached using Google Earth Experimental 2021 - Yalboroo is a small town 71 km north west of Mackay as shown with around 170 residents. The town is above the Tropic of Capricorn within an area where hail events would be rare in any given year.

4 - On Friday morning 22/10/21, a significant thunderstorm struck parts of Brisbane with videos emerging of a brief but weak tornado impacting the airport area. This storm too is remarkable for its intense rain at Brisbane Airport with 84 mm of rain falling between 10.30 am and 11.30 am including 68 mm falling between 10.30 am and 11 am. This is just over 2 mm per minute for 30 minutes. The airport recorded 91 mm from the event.

It appears that there were other similar storm events at the following centres:-

  1. Bracewell near Gladstone.
  2. Mackay where a storm generated winds of up to 80 km/h at the airport at 2.49 pm 20/10/2021. However, media reports suggest winds of up to 120 km/h within the city during the event with smaller hail.
  3. Pittsworth south west of Toowoomba where a storm may have produced a tornado and hail of 1 to 3 cm in size impacting the small town.

The hail that fell in Western Sydney on the afternoon of October 14 (Images attached) has been repeated at a number of other centres in such a short period of time which is unusual. A common feature of all these storms have been the prolific hail being produced with a number of events producing hail to 4 cm in size and the number of tornado incidents being documented.

The events have been documented in Weatherzone and it is suggested that cool dry air in the middle levels of the atmosphere was pushed far enough north even into the tropics and at lower levels, there was an abundance of moisture available to allow major storms to develop (Weatherzone - Weather news “Three maps which explains this weeks severe thunderstorms over NSW and QLD” 21/10/2021)


It will be interesting to see whether such a high incidence of significant storms continue into November.






Significant storm events New South Wales – Thursday 14 October 2021

Published by:

During Thursday afternoon, numerous thunderstorms developed across Eastern New South Wales with a number of these becoming severe in intensity and their impacts. A few of these were reported in the media.(If you have experienced hail damage, please contact 0408020468 or go to haidents.com.au)

It is acknowledged that there were numerous storms and chasing was not possible due to COVID lockdowns however three such events do stand out for the day as follows.

1 - Armidale Northern Tablelands NSW

The local airport weather station is situated south west of town and a review of this station weather data does not identify the thunderstorm that impacted the town to the north at around 10 pm. The airport weather station only identifies 10 mm of rainfall but nothing significant.

Further north, it appears that the town was impacted by a significant thunderstorm that brought hail and media reports are showing a tornado passing through the north east portion of town at around 10 pm Thursday evening. Newspaper reports within the Armidale Express shows a trail of damage including damage to buildings at the University of New England and extensive damage to homes along a narrow path across the north east portion of town.

2 - Goulburn

A significant thunderstorm passed over much of the town dropping hail especially across the southern half of the town. The local weather station recorded 11.6 mm of rain in just 5 minutes between 1.25 pm and 1.30 pm Thursday afternoon for a total of 24 mm of rain from the single event. The rain fell  in a very short period of time. The local weather station did not experience significant wind but torrential rain and hail was a feature of this event.

Further storm and rain activity later during the day boosted the tally to 35 mm for this weather station.

3 - Western Sydney (Penrith to Parramatta)

This storm is covered in detail in a separate post but late Thursday a very significant thunderstorm that at one stage was even tornado warned passed over Western Sydney producing copious amount of hail in the 4 to 6 cm range. Generally, 4 to 5 cm hail appear to have been most common. The same storm has caused significant roof damage to Westfield Mt Druitt and I have since learnt of further damage in the area where I live being mostly trees being felled by winds and local power outages.


Refer to the post “Significant Thunderstorm Impacts Western Sydney with Large Hail - October 14 2021” for further details including images of hail taken and some details of rainfall. The heaviest fall from the whole event across Sydney was 35 mm around Auburn.

I do not have photos of the storms approach but do have photos that I took of later storms at sunset that developed at or just after sunset. Later that night, distant lightning was observed from storms that were out to sea to the east but too far away to be photographed.

This storm and others were part of a dynamic weather system crossing New South Wales during Thursday. Again, while there were many other storm cells and likely hail events, the three mentioned above have been gaining greater attention due to their impact on population centres of the state.