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Spectacular Moree Sunset Supercell 19th December 2020

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Absolutely stunning supercell developed just prior to sunset as I was on the way back to my hotel! It rotated and split into a right mover and left moving supercell with this being the right mover and illuminated by the setting sun.

It produced hailstones to at lest 2 to 3 cm in diameter as the storm passed over head on dusk! It also produced beautiful lightning!

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12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

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12 Expert Tips for Writing a Tornado Research Paper

Nature is definitely something majestic and completely unpredictable. Tornadoes are probably some of the most fascinating nature`s creations. They appear from nowhere, bring huge destruction and vanish. Even though we have the most advanced technologies, we still cannot handle tornadoes. The only thing we can do is to stay away from the place where a tornado is expected.

That’s why if you are writing a research paper about tornadoes, it will definitely get attention. However, the topic is not so easy. That’s why we have prepared some tips on custom research paper writing provided by expert writers from EssayLib.

Tips from Specialists on Tornado Research Paper Writing

To make your paper succeed, pay attention to these tips from specialists. We would divide them into two main categories: specific tips and general tips.

Some specific tips are the ones that advice what information you can include in the paper:

  • For example, you might want to describe how tornadoes appear, where and when they occur.
  • You might mention how strong they can be and how long they might last.
  • If you mention about myths and legends about tornadoes, it might make your paper more attractive for the reader.
  • Tornadoes are connected with a lot of destruction and damage. That’s why it is usually requested to describe the measures that one can take to minimize the effects of a tornado or even to save somebody’s life and health.

You shall not forget that a tornado research paper is the usual research paper. That’s why you should follow all the rules that apply to the writing process of a normal research paper.

  • Select the topic you would like to work on. Make sure it covers a specific field to research. If it is too wide, you will have problems with fitting it into one paper. It might also influence your paper quality negatively.
  • Write a thesis statement. Show the main idea of the paper in 1-2 sentences. Be exact, it shall contain the essence of your paper.
  • Read the sources that your teacher has provided. Even if there is nothing interesting in most of them, your teacher will definitely want to check if you have used them. After that, you might research the sources that interest you. There are a lot of materials about tornadoes in libraries, electronic libraries and just online. Use all the resources that are available to collect information.
  • Write a research outline. Based on the notes that you have made during the research, write an outline for your paper. Think about what you are going to include there. Shall it be a paper about where tornadoes are most frequent? Or something from the history of the most devastating tornadoes? Or maybe you have dared to research the topic more properly and would like to write about why and how the tornadoes evolve and why they are more frequent in some places? Whatever you select, you will find a lot of information for the most engaging paper. And for now, make the outline for your future creation.
  • Write a draft. Just write down your ideas based on each portion of the information you have collected during the research.   
  • Check which quotations you can use in your paper. Make sure they are organically integrated into the paper content. At this stage, you can already make the list of references. If you do it without delays, it will save you some time in the future.
  • Revise the content that you already have. Improve the structure, rearrange the parts to make the paper smooth and logical.
  • Proofread the paper, edit errors and typos, improve the parts that aren’t perfect.

A Research Paper Types You Can Be Assigned to

Usually, students do one of the following research paper types:

  • An argumentative paper
  • Analytical research.

In the first case, you need to discuss your idea based on some facts and evidence. Here, you should choose a controversial topic that allows discussion.

In the second case, you have some sources and based on them, you need to perform a detailed analysis of the question.

That’s why before you start your research on tornado, make sure you understand what exactly research paper type you are going to work on. Some students get confused with the task and cannot do the job properly. So, make sure you understand what kind of paper you are writing. If you have any doubts, ask your teacher.

As you can see, there is nothing complicated in writing a paper about tornadoes if you know how to write a research paper. You need to know how to write a research paper and to have some specific knowledge about tornadoes. All the information is available both online and offline, so, make proper research and write a paper that will amaze your teacher.

Heatwave Conditions SE Australia – 22-26 January 2021

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Heatwave Conditions SE Australia - 22-26 January 2021

A significant heatwave has gripped south east Australia over the past 4 to 5 days and is presently ending due to a cool change that is slowly crossing the southern part of the continent.

This event has been most noteworthy across the inland regions of Victoria and New South Wales although it has been strong enough to spill over into parts of Western Sydney although generally west of Parramatta.

As shown in the plots produced on the “Water and the Land”, for temperature, the worst affected regions haves been the south west part of New South Wales, Northern Victoria and South Australia.

Heatwave Conditions SE Australia - 22-26 January 2021
Heatwave Conditions SE Australia - 22-26 January 2021

There has also been a major bushfire emergency in the Adelaide Hills although a cooler change and at least 20 mm of rain has helped fire fighters to contain the blaze.

Maximum temperatures within the worst affected regions have included:-


Friday - 37.6C, Saturday - 37.6C, Sunday - 39.8C, Monday - 39.8C.


Thursday - 37C, Friday - 39.2C, Saturday - 40.8C, Sunday - 41.7C, Monday - 40.4C.


Thursday - 38.2C, Friday - 39.9C, Saturday - 40.8C, Sunday - 43.6C, Monday - 41.7C.


Thursday - 37.5C, Friday - 39.6C, Saturday - 41.5C, Sunday - 42.3C,

Other significant temperatures during the event include

Yarrawonga - 40.8C on Saturday.

Ivanhoe - 40.7C on Saturday,

Wilcannia and Yanco - 42C on Monday.

Walpeup (NW Victoria) - 43.9C on Sunday.

Mildura (NW Victoria) - 40.4C on Saturday and 43.3C on Sunday.

Swan Hill (NW Victoria) - 41.8C on Sunday.

The most affected regions are those that have not received the benefit of the recent rainfall.

Sydney has generally missed the worst of the heat although some has spilled into the Sydney basin affecting mainly areas away from the coast being the inland suburbs of Blacktown, Penrith, Camden, Richmond and Campbelltown. Anywhere further east has been cooler due to the sea breezes.

Even with maximum temperatures forecast to reach between 36C and 41C across Sydney, it is coming ahead of a cooler change Tuesday night / Wednesday morning.

Maximum temperatures during this event have included (Penrith east to Sydney as an east to west cross section):

Penrith - Friday - 37.1C, Saturday - 38.1C, Sunday - 39.9C, Monday 39.3C.

Blacktown - Friday - 36C, Saturday - 34.24, Sunday - 39C, Monday 37C.

Parramatta - Friday - 35.8C, Saturday - 33.3C, Sunday - 33.8C.

Sydney (Observatory Hill) - Friday - 32.9C, Saturday - 31.9C, Sunday - 33.9C, Monday 32.1C.

This gives some indication that the level of heat being experienced across the inland suburbs is not progressing east beyond Parramatta. However, it is noted that it has reached 30C at Sydney Observatory Hill on 4 days in a row and if the 36C is reached for the 26/1/2021, this would result in 5 consecutive days where it has reached 30C which is not common in summer.

A feature of this event for the Sydney basin were the development of an isolated thunderstorm on Friday afternoon (Over NE Sydney), Saturday afternoon that produced flooding at Marsden Park (Covered in a separate article) and another isolated storm cell on Sunday afternoon across the Blue Mountains as shown in the attached photo looking west. This storm did not make it into the Sydney basin but the anvil cloud cover and later additional cloud provided some relief Sunday afternoon from the heat although it made for a warm uncomfortable night.

Heatwave Conditions SE Australia - 22-26 January 2021

The cool change across the south has brought welcome rain including 16.8 mm at Deniliquin and 12 mm at Mildura and useful totals of up to 29 mm over the Dandenong Ranges (East of Melbourne). The cool change will progress towards Sydney Tuesday and conclude this current weather event late Tuesday / early Wednesday for Sydney and much of New South Wales.

Addendum 26/1/2021 - On Tuesday maximum temperatures reached 37.1C in Sydney City (Observatory Hill) making it 5 days in a row where maximum temperatures have reached 30C. Other maximum temperatures include 41.6C at Sydney Airport, 41C at Sydney Olympic Park, 40.7C at Penrith, 39.8C at Richmond and 39.1C at Horsley Park.

Most areas of Sydney has topped 38C to 41C with minor variations and it is noted that maximum temperatures were reached between 2 pm and 3pm. Increasing cloud cover from the approaching cool change after 3 pm is resulting in a slow drop in maximum temperatures and as such the worst of the heat has now passed.

It also reached 39C at Coonamble and over 36C at Dubbo but the cool change is having a significant effect across New South Wales, lowering temperatures, producing some light rain / showers especially to the south and concluding this weather event.

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

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Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

Following a second day where temperatures soared to above 35C in Western Sydney including 38C at Penrith, an isolated afternoon thunderstorm developed over Penrith in Western Sydney and traversed east. The images of the cloud structure and its approach are taken west of Blacktown including its base.

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021
Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

I initiated a local storm chase but only had to travel 10 km to the north west to experience the core of the storm. This storm was intense proceeded with gale force winds then torrential rain but with no hail at my location.

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

I pulled off Richmond Road just west of Marsden Park at a suitable location to document the storms core. However, the core of the storm produced so much rain that there was local flooding along Richmond Road which impacted on traffic flows. The images provided are showing floodwaters from this storm and its impact on Richmond Road including floodwaters over the road and motorists having to slow down when driving through the flood waters.

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021
Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021
Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

Floodwaters were up to 20 to 30CM in places during the height of the storm.

There were also power outages from nearby lightning strikes and some tree branches were stripped from trees by the winds (downbursts or microbursts).

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021
Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

The images attached were taken between 5 pm and 6 pm 23/1/2021. This storm went into rapid decay over Marsden Park. The exact amount of rain that fell in the area is not known as no rain gauges exist although Shanes Park further west provides some clues to the intensity of the storm where 17 mm of rain fell.

Isolated intense storm at Marsden Park (NSW) with flooding 23 January 2021

Storms and heatwaves – Australia a land of weather extremes – 18 to 26 January 2021

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Storms and heatwaves - Australia a land of weather extremes - 18 to 26 January 2021

The continent of Australia is often regarded as a continent that experiences some of the most variable weather extremes found anywhere on Earth. The period 18 January to the 26 January 2021 is currently living up this reputation as a number of weather extremes are occurring or have occurred during this period. These include:-

1 - Brisbane storms (SE Queensland).

During the evening of the 18/1/2020 thunderstorms traversed across Brisbane and surrounds and isolated falls exceeding 100 mm occurred. The highest rainfall totals for the 24 hours to 9 am 19/1/2021 include 191 mm at Redcliffs followed by 157 mm at Stewards Road Alert and 144 mm at Mt Cotton. This event resulted in some local flooding and flash flooding.

Much of Brisbane and south east Queensland was impacted by this event as shown in the rainfall plots provided on the “Water and the Land” for the 24 hours to 9 am 19/1/2021.

Storms and heatwaves - Australia a land of weather extremes - 18 to 26 January 2021
Storms and heatwaves - Australia a land of weather extremes - 18 to 26 January 2021

2 - Tropical storm making landfall (NW Western Australia).

A tropical storm crossed the coast of north west Western Australia and was eventually named “Tropical Storm 14” by CIMSS. This storm cross the coast earlier than expected south west of Broom prior to its final development into a tropical cyclone.

Maximum winds at the core were forecast to reach 40 knots (74 km/h) however the storm passed close enough to 2 weather stations and as such, some observations of peak wind gusts were able to be made. These include a peak wind gust of 89km/h at Bedout Island Weather Station at 10.52 pm 21/1/2021 and a peak wind gust of 74 km/h at Rowley Shoals Weather Station.

The storm made landfall within a sparsely populated area although two rain gauges / weather stations picked up rainfalls in excess of 100 mm at landfall being Mandora – 105 mm and Pardoo Station – 162 mm for the 24 hours to 9 am 22/1/2021. The next highest rainfall occurred at Anna Plains to the north west being 63 mm. This storm broke apart upon landfall although it has spread showers, storms and cloud further inland.

It is suggested that this storm has helped to force the heat of this region towards Australia’s south east in a similar manner to what occurred in late January / early February 2009.

3 - Heatwave (southern Australia).

As described in an earlier post, a significant heatwave is expected across the inland of South East Australia with a number of centres expecting 2 to 3 days in a row of 40C temperatures prior to a cooler change on Tuesday / Wednesday 26 or the 27 January 2021. This is expected to be the strongest heatwave of the summer to date.

Already a number of centres have recorded high temperatures on the first day of this weather event including 38.2C at Hay and 37C at Albury and Deniliquin.

Some updated maximum temperature forecasts include 43C at Wilcannia for Saturday to Monday, 44C for Hay for Sunday and Monday, 43C and 44C for Swan Hill for Sunday and Monday, 41C and 42C for Albury for Sunday and Monday and 39C, 38C and 40C for Penrith (Western Sydney) for Sunday, Monday and Tuesday.

The burst of heat will extend into Western Sydney but will not reach the coast.

Storms and heatwaves - Australia a land of weather extremes - 18 to 26 January 2021
Storms and heatwaves - Australia a land of weather extremes - 18 to 26 January 2021

A cooler change on either Tuesday and Wednesday will conclude this event across the south east.